arecaceae lower classifications
In many historical cultures, because of their importance as food, palms were symbols for such ideas as victory, peace, and fertility. The Arecaceae are notable among monocots for their height and for the size of their seeds, leaves, and inflorescences. It has been cultivated around Chinese temples since at least the 17th Century and also became popular in Japan. The inflorescence is a panicle of small yellowish flowers followed by small, thin-fleshed black drupes. The fruits are rounded, bluish-black drupes with a single seed. It is mainly found at higher elevations, up to 1500 ft above sea level, than H. forsteriana although the two species both occur in lowland areas. Subfamily Ceroxyloideae has small to medium-sized flowers, spirally arranged, with a gynoecium of three joined carpels. Doubtless human selection of trees producing the best fruit has improved the species. The greatest risk to palms is destruction of habitat, especially in the tropical forests, due to urbanization, wood-chipping, mining, and conversion to farmland. In contemporary times, palms are also widely used in landscaping, making them one of the most economically important plants. Using botanical gardens for conservation also presents problems, since they can rarely house more than a few plants of any species or truly imitate the natural setting. Named for: Greek natural philosopher Theophrastus of Eresos ca. Despite appearances, the swollen trunk does not store water and frequent watering is required. The fruit is considered edible.  The date palm had a tremendous effect on the history of the Middle East. Diversity is highest in wet, lowland tropical forests, especially in ecological "hotspots" such as Madagascar, which has more endemic palm… Betel nuts (pinang) are commercially important. Palm tree From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Palm trees are a botanical family of perennial lianas, shrubs, and trees. It is a slow grower but given time will grow to about 20ft tall. Chilean Wine Palms may be sufficiently hardy to survive in mild parts of Britain and other temperate climates where frosts are not severe. • ARECACEAE (noun) The noun ARECACEAE has 1 sense:. nov. (Pl. Washingtonia H. Wendland 1879 The genus Washingtonia includes 2 species of fan palm trees native to South-Western North America. Arecaceae at World Register of Marine Species ^ Ruggiero MA, Gordon DP, Orrell TM, Bailly N, Bourgoin T, Brusca RC, et al. These are the palms planted along Californian boulevards and beaches e.g. The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial flowering plants in the monocot order Arecales. The globular inflorescence of yellowish female flowers is followed by a ball-like cluster of woody nuts, which when ripe split up and fall into the surrounding water as a method of distribution. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. Barreveld wrote: One could go as far as to say that, had the date palm not existed, the expansion of the human race into the hot and barren parts of the "old" world would have been much more restricted. Under these conditions, salts accumulate in the soil and the salt-tolerance of palms is an asset. There is no crownshaft but the leaf sheafs persist for a while as a mass of fibre around the trunk. However the upper leaves on the long, thin green stems up to 20 ft long, are reflexed to hook themselves to supporing vegetation. Some species commonly called palms, though they are not true palms, include: Family of flowering plants known as palms, Not to be confused with the heather family, "Palm tree" redirects here. Nypa fruticans typically grows in brackish water of tidal estuary flood plains, spreading by way of tidal distribution of its floating seeds. The inflorescences are hanging panicles of small, white, fragrant flowers with male and female flowers on separate plants, probably pollinated by wind. The ends of the stems carry a cluster of fan-shaped leaves on a long, spiny petiole. 2002. Both male and female flowers are produced on a single plant, the male flowers resembling yellow to red catkins. Hahn, W. J. Most species have unbranched trunks or stems crowned with large fan (palmate) or feather (pinnate) leaves but there are a few clumping palms. The following classification, proposed by N.W. Its hardyness, salt resistance and ability to resprout after fire are considered important in stabilising the poor sandy soils typical of its habitat. The first modern species, such as Nypa fruticans and Acrocomia aculeata, appeared 94 Mya, confirmed by fossil Nypa pollen dated to 94 Mya. The Arecaceae are the first modern family of monocots appearing in the fossil record around 80 million years ago (Mya), during the late Cretaceous period. Some common palms restricted to solitary growth include Washingtonia and Roystonea. The clusters of small yellow-orange to yellow-green flowers are followed by clusters of yellow or orange fruits. Dictionary entry overview: What does Arecaceae mean? The trunk is crowned with a cluster of large feathery pinnate leaves up to 20ft long with up to 100 leaflets either side of the central midrib. Male and female flowers are produced on separate plants. Several plants commonly known as Sago Palms are Cycads (e.g. It can be grown in sheltered parts of much of Great Britain and similar cool, damp climates. Palms inhabit a variety of ecosystems. The fan-shaped leaves are divided almost to their base into leaflets. – palm P: Genus Acrocomia Mart. Uhl and J. Dransfield in 1987, is a revision of Moore's classification that organizes palms into six subfamilies.. The trunk supports a substantial leaf crown of up to a hundred 15ft long recurved pinnate silver-grey leaves. Nypa fruticans is native to India, Ceylon and South-East Asia though the Malay Archipelago into North-Eastern Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland). Chuniophoenix nana does well in a pot and is a good subject for a cool conservatory. Currently 181 genera with around 2,600 species are known, most of them restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. Palms have large, evergreen leaves that are either palmately ('fan-leaved') or pinnately ('feather-leaved') compound and spirally arranged at the top of the stem. 50 BC - 19 AD) The genus Jubaea is monotypic for Jubaea chilensis, the Chilean Wine Palm. Some indigenous groups living in palm-rich areas use palms to make many of their necessary items and food. The leaves are incised into segments, to about a third of their length. The Plant List includes 7,321 scientific plant names of species rank for the family Arecaceae. The 10ft inflorescence has pale pink flowers, followed by spherical fruit. Arecaceae. Sadly, an introduced South American moth Paysandisia archon is threatening its survival. The stout trunk carries a crown of pinnate leaves with lower leaflets metamorphosed into long, vicious spines (acanthophylls). , Palms are a monophyletic group of plants, meaning the group consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants. The yellow-orange oval fruits contain a single large grooved seed surrounded by fruit pulp that is too thin to be worth eating. The leaves are usually pinnate; derived characters (synapomorphies) include spines on various organs, organs specialized for climbing, an extension of the main stem of the leaf-bearing reflexed spines, and overlapping scales covering the fruit and ovary. The inflorescence of white flowers is produced from the base of the leaves and is followed by large oval green fruits, ripening to black. pmid:25923521 Chuniophoenix hainanensis Burret 1937 is a much larger plant with 6 in diameter stems 12 - 15ft tall. Washingtonia robusta Wendland 1879 (Mexican Washingtonia). – aiphanes P: Genus Archontophoenix H. Wendl. 1). The rounded shiny leaves with incompletely separated leaflets become more divided as the plant matures. The sap was obtained by cutting down the tree, removing the crown, placing the trunk on a slope and allowing the sap to drip out of the cut end, producing as much as 90 gallons over a few months. Dransfield J., Uhl N.W., Asmussen C.B., Baker W.J., Harley M.M., Lewis C.E. The flowers are generally small and white, radially symmetric, and can be either uni- or bisexual. This medium-sized palm tree has a slender trunk up to 10ft tall crowned with a tuft of pinnate leaves up to 4ft long, with up to 100 grey-green 10 inch long leaflets in a single plane either side of the midrib. The lower leaves morph into spines along the petiole. Because palms separated from the monocots earlier than other families, they developed more intrafamilial specialization and diversity. Washingtonia palm trees have the classic California-look. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Livistona R. Brown 1810 Named for: Patrick Murray, Baron of Livistone whose home and collection are the present Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Native to Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Lower leaflets are spiny. Native to the Moluccas Islands near to the coast of Indonesia and requires constantly moist soil, warmth and shade. Statistics. Arecaceae. The evolution and classification of palms. This palm tree can grow a 75ft trunk crowned with many 6ft fans of leaflets at the end of 6ft petioles. Chamaedorea tepejilote Liebmann 1849 (Pacaya Palm) This is one of the larger members of the genus, growing as a solitary plant or occasionally suckering to form a clump. The Plant List includes a further 26 scientific plant names of infraspecific rank for the genus Phoenix.We do not intend The Plant List to be complete for names of infraspecific rank.  Currently 181 genera with around 2,600 species are known, most of them restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. The fruit normally develops from only one carpel. Thin stems up to 12ft tall carry rounded fans of many leaflets carried on smooth petioles. Two projects on palm conservation and use supported by the World Wildlife Fund took place from 1985 to 1990 and 1986–1991, in the American tropics and southeast Asia, respectively. This palm clumps up by suckering at the base to form a tangled thicket of stems and leaves. Chamaedorea metallica O.F. Learn how to systematically describe, name, classify and identify plants. C When the leaf-sheaths fall a dark green stem, conspicuously ringed with leaf base scars is exposed. 1. This palm tree has a rough, unbranched 50ft trunk felted with persistent fibrous leaf sheaths which insulate it against cold. Those having a tree-like form are called palm trees. Phoenix dactylifera Linnaeus 1753 (Date Palm) Name: Greek dáktulos = date + Latin fero = I bear The Date Palm is a multi-stemmed tree from which basal suckers are generally removed, to create a single-stemmed tree capable of growing up to 100ft tall. of peach palm). altern.) Its fossil pollen is distributed worldwide, including London clay.  This explains the cylindrical shape of the trunk (almost constant diameter) that is often seen in palms, unlike in ring-forming trees. Its fossilised nuts are found in Dorset. Several species of Areca produce nuts with a bitter taste, chewing of which is popular in South-East Asia. Male and female flowers are on separate plants. Cycas revoluta). This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 16:34. This genus is closely related to the European genus Chamaerops except that Trachycarpus palm trees remain as solitary stems while Chamaerops offsets freely at its base. The inflorescence includes both male and female flowers and is followed by edible yellow-brown spherical hard-shelled nuts from which an edible oil can be extracted. This palm is economically important as a source of sugar. Their growth form can be climbers, shrubs, tree-like and stemless plants, all commonly known as palms. The inflorescence is a large branching panicle of small yellowish-brown flowers. Chamaedorea pochutlensis Liebmann 1849 This clumping palm has thin, green 10ft stems bearing pinnate leaves with many lanceolate leaflets and a feathery appearance. It spreads by suckering. New leaves emerge through a fibrous sheath, which remains attached for a while to the base of the long, smooth, thin petioles and the main stem. Chamaedorea stolonifera Wendland 1892 (Stolon Palm) has slender 4 ft stems with annular leaf rings. However, many palms, like some other monocots, do have secondary growth, although because it does not arise from a single vascular cambium producing xylem inwards and phloem outwards, it is often called "anomalous secondary growth".. , Currently, few extensive phylogenetic studies of the Arecaceae exist. Left: Chuniophoenix nana Burret 1940 Syn. Class Liliopsida – Monocotyledons: Subclass Arecidae: Order Arecales: Family Arecaceae – Palm family : Contains 59 Genera and 94 accepted taxa overall : Down one level : Genus Acoelorraphe H. Wendl. This is the hardiest Butia, tolerating -10°C, and can be grown outdoors in milder parts of Great Britain and other warm temperate regions. The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial flowering plants in the monocot order Arecales. The leaves are used in basket weaving and other crafts. Lower left: A younger specimen showing the crown of large pinnate leaves which are used in Chile to make baskets. Arecaceae include the tallest monocot, Ceroxylon quindiuense at ca 200 feet (61 m) tall, the plant with the longest unbranched stems, perhaps up to 200 m long in the climber Calamus manan; the plant with the largest leaf - Raphia sp. The unusually small fruits are produced in grape-like clusters, often blue or jade-green. Native to a range from Southern Mexico into South America where it grows in forests as an understory plant. Native to Southern Japan, Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands. The petioles are unarmed. The common name refers to use of the sap boiled down into a syrup (palm honey) or fermented into a beverage (palm wine). Here you will find a large database of palm trees with detailed profile and beautiful photos. Trachycarpus fortunei is native to the foothills of the Himalyan Mountains and mountains of China and Japan at elevations up to 7,800ft, so it is quite hardy. Learn about Plant Taxonomy. Venice Beach Ca., where their salt-tolerance is a virtue. The fruit is unusual in that it floats, and the stem is dichotomously branched, also unusual in palms. In cultivation, this is definitely a plant that likes its feet wet at all times. It is planted in many European countries and across the USA. The fruit is an oval yellowish-brown drupe containing a single large, grooved seed surrounded by a thin layer of fibrous, acrid pulp. Male and female flowers are on separate plants, but male plants are rare in cultivation. Named for: Patrick Murray, Baron of Livistone whose home and collection are the present Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Introduction Arecaceae or Palmae is an ancient and fourth largest family among monocotyledons (Sub-class Spadiciflorae) after Orchidaceae, Poaceae and Liliaceae.Palms are mostly tropical and can be found in all habitats from rain forests, deserts to … Name: Brazillian common name for palms in this genus. Distribution of Meliaceae 3. Affinities. Subfamily Arecoideae Griffith Tribe Cocoseae Mart. Colombia may have the highest number of palm species in one country. Leaves are pinnate. Holotype. Hyophorbe verschaffeltii Wendland 1866 (Spindle Palm, Palmiste Marron) has a trunk with slender ends and a swelling in the middle, just below the blue-green crown-shaft. A small specimen may be wrapped in a protective fleece. It may be an ancestral form of the edible date palm, to which it is very similar. (January 2005). The canopies of the Rathayatra carts which carry the deities of Krishna and his family members in the cart festival of Jagganath Puri in India are marked with the emblem of a palm tree. Trachycarpus H. Wendland 1861 This genus includes 8 species of palm trees native to Asia. It is taken inside for the Winter. The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial flowering plants in the monocot order Arecales. Nine species have suckering trunks forming clumps, while the remaining four are solitary. The only living individual remains at the Botanic Gardens of Curepipe in Mauritius. It is listed as invasive in e.g. APG IV Classification : Domain : Eukaryota • (unranked) : Archaeplastida • Regnum : Plantae • Cladus : angiosperms • Cladus : monocots • Cladus : commelinids • Ordo : Arecales • Familia: Arecaceae Bercht. Only about 130 palm species naturally grow entirely beyond the tropics, mostly in humid lowland subtropical climates, in highlands in southern Asia, and along the rim lands of the Mediterranean Sea. However, palms exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics and inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts. The Arecaceae are of great commercial importance as sources of nuts, edible fruits, starchy foods, oils, fibre, thatch and woods and have been cultivated for thousands of years. Phoenix theophrastii is native to the Mediterranean island of Crete with a limited distribution in Southern Greece, Greek Islands and South-West Turkey. Most palm seeds lose viability quickly, and they cannot be preserved in low temperatures because the cold kills the embryo. The yellowish fruit are edible with a sharp, sweet fruity flavour. Native to China. The Arecoideae are the largest subfamily, with six diverse tribes (Areceae, Caryoteae, Cocoseae, Geonomeae, Iriarteeae, and Podococceae) containing over 100 genera. The sap is used there to make palm syrup. Specifically it is the symbol of Krishna's brother, Baladeva. Native to South-Eastern Mexico where it grows as an understory plant on limestone. The leaves have spiny petioles supporting a rounded fan of many leaflets. Studies have suggested the lack of a fully resolved hypothesis for the relationships within the family is due to a variety of factors, including difficulties in selecting appropriate outgroups, homoplasy in morphological character states, slow rates of molecular evolution important for the use of standard DNA markers, and character polarization. The trunk supports a crown of leaves with a bare petiole supporting a rounded fan of many leaflets. Chamaerops fortunei (Chusan Palm, Windmill Palm) Named for: Robert Fortune, Scottish botanist who found this species on Chusan Island. Palms appear on the flags and seals of several places where they are native, including those of Haiti, Guam, Saudi Arabia, Florida, and South Carolina.  Date wood, pits for storing dates, and other remains of the date palm have been found in Mesopotamian sites.  The sale of seeds to nurseries and collectors is another threat, as the seeds of popular palms are sometimes harvested directly from the wild. The name was coined by August Grisebach who first described the genus in his 1846 Flora of the British West Indian Islands.. Phoenix dactylifera has little frost resistance although brief, light frosts may be tolerated. Best suited to a Mediterranean climate, but tolerates a small degree of frost and does not require heat to grow. The crown-shaft is bright green and is topped with four to six arching, pinnate leaves. 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